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Let’s talk about… Mouth Cancer

Last month the BBC Radio DJ Mark Radcliffe announced that he was taking time off-air to deal with oral cancer, saying on Twitter:

Mark Radcliffe Tweet

If you heard his on-air discussion, you may have been surprised by his up-beat attitude to his diagnosis, however to us it perfectly demonstrates what many dentists already know; that this is a very curable condition if caught early enough. In fact, early detection pushes mouth cancer survival rates from around 50% to 90%.

This November is Mouth Cancer Action Month, and like Mark Radcliffe we want to open up the discussion and raise awareness of some of the signs, symptoms and measures you can take identify the condition at its earliest stage.

What is mouth cancer?

Most people have heard of cancer affecting parts of the body such as the lungs or breasts. However, cancer can appear in the mouth, where the disease can affect the lips, tongue, cheeks and throat.

What can cause mouth cancer?

Most cases of mouth cancer are linked to tobacco and alcohol. Cigarette, cigar and pipe smoking are the main forms of tobacco use in many parts of the world. However, the traditional habits in some cultures of chewing tobacco, betel quid, gutkha and paan are particularly dangerous.

Alcohol increases the risk of mouth cancer, and if tobacco and alcohol are taken together the risk is even greater.

Over-exposure to sunlight can also increase the risk of cancer of the lips.

Many recent reports have linked mouth cancer to the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer and affects the skin that lines the moist areas of the body.

HPV can be spread through oral sex, and research now suggests that HPV could soon rival smoking and drinking as one of the main causes of mouth cancer. There are now HPV vaccines for both girls and boys. They were developed to fight cervical cancer, but it is likely that they will also help to reduce the rates of mouth cancer. These vaccines are given at age 12 to 13 before sexual activity starts.

What are the signs of mouth cancer?

Mouth cancer can appear in different forms and can affect all parts of the mouth, tongue and lips. Mouth cancer can appear as a painless mouth ulcer that does not heal normally. A white or red patch in the mouth can also develop into a cancer. Be aware of any unusual lumps in your mouth or jaw area and any persistent hoarseness. It is important to visit your dental team or doctor if these areas do not heal within three weeks. If you aren’t sure, go for a check-up anyway.

How can mouth cancer be detected early?

Mouth cancer can often be spotted in its early stages by your dental team during a thorough mouth examination. If mouth cancer is diagnosed early, then the chances of a cure are good. It’s an important reason to keep up-to-date with your dental check-ups.

Is there anything I can do at home?

Be aware of what is going on in your mouth. Examine yourself regularly. Ulcers that do not heal within three weeks, any unusual red or white patches, lumps in your neck or jaw area, or persistent hoarseness are all reasons for asking your dental team or doctor to examine you. There is probably nothing seriously wrong but an early diagnosis could save your life.

What is involved in a full check-up of the mouth?

The inside of your mouth and your tongue will be examined with the help of a small mirror. The examination will also look at your neck and underneath your jaw. Dentists will carry out this examination as part of a routine dental check-up. Remember, your dental team can see parts of your mouth that you cannot see easily yourself.

What happens if my dentist finds a problem?

If they find something unusual they will refer you to a consultant at the hospital, who will carry out a thorough examination of your mouth and throat. A small sample of the cells may be gathered from the area (a biopsy), and these cells will be examined under the microscope to see what is wrong.

Can mouth cancer be cured?

If mouth cancer is spotted early, the chances of a complete cure are good, and the smaller the area or ulcer the better the chance of a cure. However, too many people come forward too late because they do not have regular mouth examinations.

How can I make sure that my mouth stays healthy?

Stop smoking, and cut down on the amount of alcohol you drink.

Eat a balanced, healthy diet with at least five portions of fruit and vegetables a day. This can also help protect against many other cancers.

Visit your dental team regularly, as often as they recommend.

What should I do if I spot anything unusual?

If you are experiencing any of the above symptoms and are concerned about mouth cancer, please get in touch to book an appointment with one of our team. Chances are it’s nothing serious, but early detection saves lives.

Information courtesy of the BDA and the Oral Health Foundation.

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